In the blood serum of the rats exposed to total, fractionated irradiation, statistically significant decreases in the acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase activities were observed 1 and 8 days after completing the irradiation. In the case of beta-galactosidase, this decrease lasted even up to the 15th day after the end of irradiation.
The activities of serum acid deoxyribonuclease and acid ribonuclease exhibited no statistically significant changes. The effect of X-irradiation on PHA-stimulated rat lymphocytes has been investigated. The cell extracts prepared from leucocytes and erythrocytes of normal rats were applied to C57B1 mice exposed to 300 Rad in 5 injections of 0.5 ml each, during the period of 50-80 hours after irradiation.
Blood obtained by cardiac puncture was defibrinated and the lymphocytes sedimented by Dextraven. Lymphocytes were separated from supernatant and cultivated for three days in standard medium supplemented with rat serum and PHA. It was found that irradiation reduces the percentage of blast cells in function of the doses of irradiation. In principle, however, the latter is so low as compared to the total content of 32P, especially three hours after 32P-injection, that variations are hardly to be recorded by means of extracorporal measurements, particularly because they are superposed by changes in the 32P-content of other fractions.
This reduction is accompained by an increased number of macrophage-like cells. The labelling index with tritiated thymidine in PHA-transformed lymphocytes was also reduced following irradiation. 4-hydroperoxicyclophosphamide was the cytostatic agent with the largest range of effectiveness, followed by amethopterine, while the mitotic poisons mitopodozide and VM-26 Sandoz were less effective.
Case report of a papillary thyroid gland carcinoma which was possibly induced by the irradiation of a parotid gland carcinoma. Cells from three carcinomas of the uterine corpus and from 14 ovarian carcinomas have been cultured in vitro by the monlayer and sandwich methods. Owing to the long duration of the incubation period, the 4-hydroperoxicyclophosphamide with its secondary and degradation products can influence the greatest possible numbers of cells through several phases of the cell cycle, thus obtaining an approach to in-vivo kinetics.
They were evaluated on the basis of morphological criteria after 24 hours of incubation with 4-hydroperoxicyclophosphamide, amethopterine, mitopodozide and VM-26 Sandoz, using two dose ranges in each case. The index of 3H-thymidine was determined by means of two parallel experiments. Later results concerning pharmacokinetics of the cyclophosphamide have lead us to apply the technique of primary culture.
A concentration of substrate per unit of volume, higher than the actually in vivo expected, is to compensate the short half-life of 4-hydroperoxicyclophosphamide as well as the lack of the supply-function of current dynamics. The histology and degree of differentiating of the tumors as well as the proliferation rate are not correlated in a distinct manner with sensitivity to cytostatics. Pretreatment with cytostatics of with irradiation revealed no certain influence upon subsequent sensitivity to cytostatics.
In view of results of extracorporal measurements of the 32 P-incorporation into irradiated or nonirradiated tumors biochemical investigations of the 32P-incorporation have been performed, aiming at comprehension of the meaning and at clarification of the interpretability of these measurements. The results show that irradiation mostly decreases the content of 32P in nucleic acids.
Significant inhibition in the proliferative compartments of both granulocytic and erythrocytic cells were found in mice submitted to the corresponding cell extract. Our results indicate that cell extracts tested in an animal system demonstrated the same type of inhibitory action as previously reported for the bone marrow cells cultivated in vitro. Cycloartenol and cycloartanol are the major components of the 4,4-dimethylsterol fraction separated from the seeds of red pepper (Capsicum annuum, Solanaceae).